49 relations. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. 1. Alexios III of Trebizond. Karpov interprets the significance of this image and the inscription as portraying the most important achievement of his life, St. George inviting the victorious prince to enter Trebizond and opening the gates of the city with his left hand. The core of the empire was the southern Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Yeşilırmak river, a region known to the Trapezuntines as Limnia, possibly as far east as Akampsis river, a region then known as Lazia; Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. The troubled reign of Manuel's youngest son John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the restored Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Georganteli, "Trapezuntine Money in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Black Sea, 13th–15th centuries", in T. Kyriakides (ed. As documented by Charitopoulos Evangelos. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. A third one, the Empire of Trebizond was created a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople by Alexios I of Trebizond. Possibly the diocese of Cerasous was deactivated for the same reasons. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of the narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea and the western half of the Pontic Alps, along with the Gazarian Perateia, or southern Crimea (soon losing to Genoese Gazaria and Theodorite Gazaria). [35], Following the death of Alexios II, Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations, despite a short period of stability under his youngest son Basil (1332–1340). In November 1373, he sailed to Trebizond, where he tried to force the deposition of the Emperor of Trebizond, Alexios III. The city held out for a month before David surrendered on August 15, 1461. Although that effort came to nothing, this was the last rebel governor known to recorded history prior to the events of 1204. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", "La dernière reconquête de Sinope par les Grecs de Trébizonde (1254–1265)", "New Documents on the Relations between the Latins and the Local Populations in the Black Sea Area (1392–1462), Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empire_of_Trebizond&oldid=993474580, States and territories established in 1204, States and territories disestablished in 1461, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 20:15. Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Login with Facebook The typikon of the Dionysiou is an object of artistic merit and beauty. 102, 305. Chaldia had already shown its separatist tendencies in the 10th and 11th centuries, when it came under the control of a local leader named Theodore Gabras, who according to Anna Comnenaregarded Trebizond and its hinterlands "as a prize which had fallen to his own lot" and conducted himself as an independent prince. At the same time, they played the Genoese and Venetians off against each other. Michael Panaretos, Chronicle, ch. For the time being, Alexios was accepted as emperor because of his youth, which proved acceptable to the nobles of the realm who sought to use the young ruler's minority for their own purposes. The expedition failed, as Michael was murdered by his Bulgarian brother-in-law. Other allusions and works set in Trebizond continue into the 20th century. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. During his long reign, Alexios III had repaired the physical damage to the capital, gave rich endowments to several monasteries, especially Soumela Monastery, and founded the Dionysiou monastery at Mount Athos. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … Miller, "Trebizond: The Last Greek Empire of the Byzantine Era", Chicago, 1926. The Grand Duke was forced to flee to Kerasous in June 1354 and attempted an attack on Trebizond in March 1355. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother. [22], The empire traces its foundation to April 1204, when Alexios Komnenos and his brother David took advantage of the preoccupation of the central Byzantine government with the encampment of the soldiers of the Fourth Crusade outside their walls (June 1203 – mid-April 1204) and seized the city of Trebizond and the surrounding province of Chaldia with troops provided by their relative, Tamar of Georgia. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest among the Byzantine successor states. E.S. Login with Gmail. Alexios II of Trebizond (2 December 1282-3 May 1330) was Emperor of Trebizond from 16 August 1297 to 3 May 1330, succeeding John II and preceding Andronikos III.. Discussion that several authorities consider Alexios II's reign to be the height of Trapezuntine power. It maintained its position as a major trade center and the wealth that came along with it. Komnene is the female form of Komnenos , her family name [ [http://www.thepeerage.com/p21911.htm#i219104 Peerage.com: unknown daughter Comnene ] ] . [26] That same month Alexios was proclaimed emperor at the age of 22, an act considered by later writers as the moment the Empire of Trebizond was founded. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos confirmed him as governor of Chaldia, but kept his son at Constantinople as a hostage for his good conduct. [39], John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. ), Zehiroğlu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2" 2016, Trabzon, (. Genealogy profile for "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond. Communication New! The Empire of Trebizond also gained its reputation for superb diplomacy during this time. Trebizond lasted until 1461 when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered it after a month-long siege and took its ruler and his family into captivity,[14] marking the final end of the Roman imperial tradition initiated by Augustus 1,488 years previously. Due to its natural harbours, defensible topography and access to silver and copper mines, Trebizond became the pre-eminent Greek colony on the eastern Black Sea shore soon after its founding. Alexios I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) or Alexius I Megas Comnenus was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond and its ruler from 1204 until his death in 1222. [6] Henceforth, the links between Trebizond and Georgia remained close, but their nature and extent have been disputed. He was the elder son of John II and Eudokia Palaiologina. Michael Palaiologos (son of John V) - Wikipedia When the deposed Emperor of Trebizond Michael was sent, after a period of incarceration, to Constantinople, he was accompanied by the tatas Michael Sampson, who was tasked to find a suitable wife for the new ruler, Alexios III. The Byzantine E… It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers, who were famed for their beauty, for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkish rulers of inland Anatolia. When he was eleven years old, he was sent to Trebizond by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos to replace his deposed great-uncle Michael, who had been an instrument of the regency Kantakouzenos had displaced. The document is also… …   Wikipedia, Komnene, daughter of Alexios I of Trebizond — Komnene was the wife of Andronikos I of Trebizond. [9][page needed] Thus from the point of view of the Byzantine writers connected with the Laskaris and later with the Palaiologos dynasties, the rulers of Trebizond were not emperors. However, not long after they had gained control of Trebizond and the neighboring territories, news of the Latin conquest of Constantinople reached them, and the brothers entered the competition for recovery of the imperial city against Theodore I Laskaris in western Anatolia (ruler of the "Empire of Nicaea") and Michael Komnenos Doukas in mainland Greece (ruler of the "Despotate of Epirus"). Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He was the son of Emperor Alexios III of Trebizond by… …   Wikipedia, Andronikos III of Trebizond — Andronikos III Megas Komnenos or Andronicus III (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos III Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1310 ndash; 1332) Emperor of Trebizond from 1330 to 1332. In 1376–1377 the Venetians conspired with the Bulgarian despotes Dobrotitsa of Dobruja (an enemy of the Genoese) to impose his son-in-law Michael Palaiologos, a son of Emperor John V Palaiologos on the throne of Trebizond. [citation needed], Alexios IV's eldest son, John IV (1429–1459), could not help but see that his Empire would soon share the fate of Constantinople. [33] Western travelers used Trebizond as their starting point for journeys into Asia; these travelers included Marco Polo, who returned to Europe in 1295 by way of Trebizond. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios III Megas Komnēnos"), (October 5, 1338 – March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. The rebels realized that they would be unable to win and abandoned their expedition. But the Venetians were not content with their gains and jealously quarreled with the Genoese. In 1351 the connection to John VI Kantakouzenos was strengthened by further diplomatic initiatives. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", (3/7/2007), "La date de la prise de Trébizonde par les Turcs (1461)", "Présence de l'aigle bicéphale en Trebizonde et dans la principauté grecque de Théodoro en Crimée (XIVe-XVe siècles)", "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1222)", "Establishment of the Empire of Trebizond by the Grand Komnenoi, 1204", "Very Rare Issue of Interest to Both Byzantine & Crusader Collectors", "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", "Diocese of Cerasous. In 1282, John II Komnenos stripped off his imperial regalia before the walls of Constantinople before entering to marry Michael's daughter, accepting his legal title of despot. Ostrogorsky, G., Ιστορία του Βυζαντινού κράτους 3 (Athens 1997), pp. Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429. Alexios would then proceed to rule his new empire for the next twenty-two years, until his death in February 1222. The common view is that the Empire of Trebizond relied heavily upon wealth gained from its trade with Genoese and Venetian merchants to secure for itself the resources necessary to maintain independence.[31]. Alexios was also unable to displace the Genoese and Venetians from their dominant position in Trebizond's commerce. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. In this he was less successful, and suffered a major defeat in battle in 1355. During his reign Catholic missionaries established a base in Trebizond. Alexios was raised at the Byzantine court. Alexios' position was safeguarded by the consignment of the deposed Emperor Michael to a monastery. [18] This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. He was the eldest son of Manuel Komnenos and of Rusudan …   Wikipedia, Alexios III — There have been two rulers called Alexios III:* Alexios III Angelos, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire * Alexios III Megas Komenos, Emperor of Trebizond …   Wikipedia, Manuel III of Trebizond — Manuel III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl III Megas Komnēnos) (December 16, 1364 – March 5, 1417) was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417. During his reign, the city of Erzurum was also under Trebizond Empire occupation for a while around the 1310s. 205–210. [40] Through Theodora and the daughter of Alexios IV of Trebizond (also named Theodora), the Safavid dynasty of Iran that succeeded the Ak Koyunlu, would be of direct partial Pontic Greek ethnicity from its very beginning. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. "Narratives of the Fall: Structure and Meaning in the Genesis Frieze at Hagia Sophia, Trebizond". Greek text in. David Komnenos, the younger brother of the first Emperor, expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then coastal parts of Paphlagonia (the modern-day coastal regions of Kastamonu, Bartın, and Zonguldak) and Heraclea Pontica (the modern-day Karadeniz Ereğli), until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea. Irene of Trebizond (died around 1382) was the bigamous wife of Basil of Trebizond, by whom he had two sons, Alexios and John (later Alexios III of Trebizond), and possibly three daughters Anna, Maria and Theodora. His accomplishments included capturing Sinope in 1254. [24] While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. He sent an envoy to the Council of Florence in 1439, the humanist George Amiroutzes, which resulted in the proclamation of the Union of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, but this proclamation brought little help. Rabelais had his character Picrochole, the ruler of Piedmont, declare: "I want also to be Emperor of Trebizond." Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. In the centuries before the founding of the empire the city had been under control of the local Gabras family, which – while officially still remaining part of the Byzantine Empire – minted its own coin. Whilst the Empire of Nicaea had restored the Byzantine Empire through restoring control of the capital, it ended in 1453 with the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. In spite of his victories over the nobles, Alexios showed restraint and willingness to compromise by granting charters to noble families confirming them in possession of their lands. [15], The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Megas Komnenos ("Great Comnenus") and – like their counterparts in the other two Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus – initially claimed supremacy as "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans". Alexios Komnenos was the son of Emperor John II of Trebizond, and he came under the care of his uncle, Andronicus II of Byzantium, before inheriting the throne of the Empire of Trebizond in 1297. Wikipedia (Personally, I think this belief is based on too much trust in the judgment of later writers & on incomplete evidence. *"The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.*W. The Metropolitan Niphon was deposed for his complicity in the plot and replaced with the emperor's supporter John Lazaropoulos (under the monastic name Joseph). This is the date determined by Franz Babinger. Alexios' relations with the Eastern & Western churches. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. Niketas and his aristocratic supporters were taken captive and brought to Trebizond, where he died in 1360. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos ), (October 5, 1338 ndash; March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. It was at this point that he adopted the name Alexios, and he was crowned on January 21, 1350 in the company of his mother Irene and of John Lazaropoulos, who later became Metropolitan of Trebizond. While the aristocrats squabbled with each other, Alexios despaired of security in his capital and retired to the coastal castle of Tripolis. "[44] Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity. "[43] Donald Nicol echoes Runciman's observations: "Most of the emperors were blessed with a progeny of marriageable daughters, and the beauty of the ladies of Trebizond was as legendary as the wealth of their dowries. [citation needed], After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power. Despite the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople, the Emperors of Trebizond continued to style themselves as "Roman Emperors" for two decades and continued to press their claim on the Imperial throne. Alexios sailed to Kerasous with a small fleet in the company of his mother and the metropolitan, and conquered the town in the absence of Niketas. [21] Another successor to Theodore was Constantine Gabras, whom Niketas describes as ruling Trebizond as a tyrant, and whose actions led Emperor John II Komnenos in 1139 to lead an expedition against him. He was an eldest son of Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond and his… …   Wikipedia, Theodora Kantakouzene, wife of Alexios IV of Trebizond — Theodora Kantakouzene (d. 12 November, 1426) was the Empress consort of Alexios IV of Trebizond.FamilyTheodora and her relations are named in Dell Imperadori Constantinopolitani , a manuscript held in the Vatican Library. [19], The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. By his wife Theodora Kantakouzene, Alexios III had six children:* Basil (1358–1377)* Manuel III (1364–1417), Emperor 1390–1416* Eudokia, who married first Tajeddin, Emir of Limnia and then the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš* Maria, who married Suleyman Beg, Emir of Chalybia, * Unnamed daughter, who married Mutahharten, Emir of Erzincan* Anna, who married King Bagrat V of Georgia, By an unnamed mistress, Alexios also had at least two illegitimate sons: * Andronikos (1355–1376), who married Gulkhan-Eudokia, daughter of King David IX of Georgia, but was murdered shortly after and Eudokia married his brother, Manuel III* John. Alexios III of Trebizond, Alexios III of Trebizond. Komnene, of. Of 14 after the death of his father and beauty, Ahmet ;... Age of 14 after the death of his father Charitopoulos Evangelos, `` that the seal points the. 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